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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| April-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 9, 2018

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Targeted Therapy: Attacking Cancer with Molecular and Immunological Targeted Agents
Gail M Wilkes
April-June 2018, 5(2):137-155
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_79_17  PMID:29607374
Today, personalized cancer therapy with targeted agents has taken center stage, and offers individualized treatment to many. As the mysteries of the genes in a cell's DNA and their specific proteins are defined, advances in the understanding of cancer gene mutations and how cancer evades the immune system have been made. This article provides a basic and simplified understanding of the available (Food and Drug Administration- approved) molecularly and immunologically targeted agents in the USA. Other agents may be available in Asia, and throughout the USA and the world, many more agents are being studied. Nursing implications for drug classes are reviewed.
  10 2,434 381
A Survey on the Relationship between Religiosity and Quality of Life in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Study in Iranian Muslims
Amene Zargani, Morteza Nasiri, Khadije Hekmat, Zahra Abbaspour, Shima Vahabi
April-June 2018, 5(2):217-222
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_65_17  PMID:29607383
Objective: This study aimed to assess the relationship between religiosity and quality of life (QoL) in patients with breast cancer in a Muslim population. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 84 Muslim patients with breast cancer who were admitted to Ahvaz Shafa Hospital, Iran, during 2015. QoL and religiosity were measured with the Short Form-36 questionnaire and Muslim Religiosity questionnaire based on the Glock and Stark model, respectively. Data were analyzed using a software program for descriptive statistics, the Chi-square test, Pearson's correlation, and an independent sample t-test. Results: Most patients had high religiosity (69%) and moderate QoL (46.5%) scores. Total scores and all subscales scores for QoL were significantly higher in patients with high religiosity than patients with moderate religiosity (P < 0.0001). Moreover, a direct correlation was found between religiosity (total and all subscales) and QoL (total and all subscales) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: A significant relationship was found between religiosity and QoL in patients with breast cancer. Accordingly, care team members, especially midwifery and nursing staff, should pay more attention to religious beliefs among these patients to improve their QoL.
  6 2,809 277
Assessment of Nutritional Problems in Pediatric Patients with Cancer and the Information Needs of Their Parents: A Parental Perspective
Tuba Arpaci, Ebru Kilicarslan Toruner, Naime Altay
April-June 2018, 5(2):231-236
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_78_17  PMID:29607385
Objective: The majority of problems and symptoms occur in the gastrointestinal system in children with cancer. Parents have difficulty in coping with the nutritional problems and changing routines of children and need support in this respect. This study aimed to assess the nutritional problems of children with cancer and the information needs of their parents. Methods: This descriptive study was performed among children with cancer aged 3–18 years and their parents (n = 69). The data were collected through a data collection form developed by the researchers based on the literature. Results: The most prominent nutritional problems experienced by children were loss of appetite (85.5%), nausea (84.1%), vomiting (81.2%), fatigue (79.7%), and mucositis (66.7%). According to the parents, the factors causing these nutritional problems in children were physiological factors (100%) and the foods given to children in the hospital (65.2%). The parents mostly needed information about food–drug interactions (58.0%), food–disease interactions (52.2%), foods that children with neutropenia should avoid or should eat (neutropenic diet) (46.4%), and frequency of nutritional intake (36.2%). Conclusions: This study has shown that most children experience at least one nutritional problem, and the parents need comprehensive and regular information about nutrition. Pediatric oncology nurses have a significant responsibility in the evaluation, education, and monitoring of these children.
  4 2,353 360
New Trends and Recent Care Approaches in Pediatric Oncology Nursing
Ebru Kilicarslan Toruner, Naime Altay
April-June 2018, 5(2):156-164
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_3_18  PMID:29607375
Increased incidence of children diagnosed with cancer and survivors was an impact on changes in pediatric hemato-oncology nursing care. In this review article, it is aimed to investigate the new trends and recent care approaches in pediatric oncology nursing. The recent care topics were common in the literature as family-centered care, technology-based care, program development, primary care of child, health-care provider, survivors and home care, and nonpharmacological care. All of the topics contribute to perform evidence-based care for health promotion and well-being in pediatric hemato-oncology nursing. Research reviews showed that many current topics for the care of children and their parents have entered in the literature. There is a need for more randomized controlled studies to improve the level of evidence of new nursing approaches.
  4 3,518 469
Test–Retest Reliability of the Short-Form Survivor Unmet Needs Survey
Karen Taylor, Max Bulsara, Leanne Monterosso
April-June 2018, 5(2):165-171
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_4_18  PMID:29607376
Objective: Reliable and valid needs assessment measures are important assessment tools in cancer survivorship care. A new 30-item short-form version of the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SF-SUNS) was developed and validated with cancer survivors, including hematology cancer survivors; however, test–retest reliability has not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the test–retest reliability of the SF-SUNS with a cohort of lymphoma survivors (n = 40). Methods: Test–retest reliability of the SF-SUNS was conducted at two time points: baseline (time 1) and 5 days later (time 2). Test–retest data were collected from lymphoma cancer survivors (n = 40) in a large tertiary cancer center in Western Australia. Intraclass correlation analyses compared data at time 1 (baseline) and time 2 (5 days later). Cronbach's alpha analyses were performed to assess the internal consistency at both time points. Results: The majority (23/30, 77%) of items achieved test–retest reliability scores 0.45–0.74 (fair to good). A high degree of overall internal consistency was demonstrated (time 1 = 0.92, time 2 = 0.95), with scores 0.65–0.94 across subscales for both time points. Conclusions: Mixed test–retest reliability of the SF-SUNS was established. Our results indicate the SF-SUNS is responsive to the changing needs of lymphoma cancer survivors. Routine use of cancer survivorship specific needs-based assessments is required in oncology care today. Nurses are well placed to administer these assessments and provide tailored information and resources. Further assessment of test–retest reliability in hematology and other cancer cohorts is warranted.
  3 2,138 254
Symptoms Experienced and Information Needs of Women Receiving Chemotherapy
Neşe Uysal, Filiz Ünal Toprak, Sevinç Kutlutsürkan, Ayten Sentürk Erenel
April-June 2018, 5(2):178-183
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_69_17  PMID:29607378
Objective: This study is carried out to determine the symptoms and information necessity on chemotherapy (CT) treatment of the women with breast cancer. Methods: A total of 170 women older than 18 years old, who receive CT with breast cancer diagnosis, are volunteered to participate in the study. Mixed method was used in the study. Data are collected using Descriptive Data Form, Interview Form and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Results: As a result of the cluster analysis, four clusters and the symptoms within have been obtained. These are: pain, lack of energy, feeling drowsy, sweat, swelling of hands, and feet in the first cluster; feeling nervous, difficulty sleeping, feeling sad, worrying in the second cluster; nausea, feeling bloating, change in the way food tastes, hair loss, constipation in the third cluster; vomiting, diarrhea, problems with sexual interest, lack of appetite, dizziness, and weight loss in the forth cluster. Women's information necessity related to the CT are follows: the effects of CT, other treatment options beyond CT, complementary methods, the effect of the CT treatment on reproductive health and sexuality, nutrition, and symptom control. Conclusions: The results of this study will enable determination of symptom clusters, which health professionals are easier to focus on these symptoms. An understanding information need of patients can help to ensure that individual's coping strategies and self-management.
  3 2,790 309
Experiences of the Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy at a Public Hospital Peshawar Pakistan
Gulzar Habibullah, Raisa Gul, Shanaz Cassum, Rehana Elahi
April-June 2018, 5(2):184-194
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_70_17  PMID:29607379
Objective: This study aimed to explore the experiences of female breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) in a public hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Methods: This study employed a descriptive exploratory method. A purposive sample of 14 breast cancer women undergoing RT was selected for this study. Data were collected over the period of 5 months, using a semi-structured interview guide and conducting in-depth face-to-face interviews. These interviews were audio taped and transcribed by a bilingual transcriber. The translated version of the interview was coded, and the analysis was done manually. Results: Four main categories emerged from data analysis, which were: feelings and perceptions of the patients, their challenges, coping strategies, and teaching and informational needs. Conclusions: Women undergoing RT in this culture experience more intense psychological effects, as compared to the physical effects. Keeping in mind, the magnitude of the emotional stress experienced by the participants, recommendations for policy reforms, and training for female RT staff are suggested based on findings of this research.
  2 2,295 192
Occupational Stress in the Indian Army Oncology Nursing Workforce: A Cross-sectional Study
Neelam Sharma, Puneet Takkar, Abhishek Purkayastha, Pradeep Jaiswal, Sachin Taneja, Nishant Lohia, Anu Rani Augustine
April-June 2018, 5(2):237-243
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_61_17  PMID:29607386
Objective: This cross-sectional, quantitative epidemiological study was aimed at finding out the degree of work-related stress among the staff nurses working in oncology. Methods: This study was conducted on 81 out of 100 oncology-trained nurses working in various oncology centers of Indian Army who consented to participate in it. It was carried out in five oncology centers of our organization where oncology-related facilities are available. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire covering their sociodemographic variables in part I and professional life stress scale by David Fontana in part II. The association between stress and various variables was found using Chi-square test. Results: Risk for professional stress was found more among unmarried young respondents of 20–30 years age group. No statistically significant association (P < 0.131) was found between department of posting and level of stress. Nurses reported that they had no time for rest, of whom 62.96% were suffering from moderate range of stress for a busy professional while only one admitted to have severe stress requiring remedial action. While 82.7% felt that they are able to achieve major objectives in life, 71.6% of them reported that they feel inadequately valued for their commitment at work. Conclusions: The main nurses' occupational stressors were criticism, feeling of not being appreciated for hard work, and having time for self. This type of assessment should be carried out in all hospitals so that working conditions for this important component of health care can be improved.
  2 2,749 251
Effect of Nursing Intervention on Mothers' Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and Acceptance of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for their Adolescent Daughters in Abuja – Nigeria
Funmilola T Odunyemi, Chizoma M Ndikom, O Abimbola Oluwatosin
April-June 2018, 5(2):223-230
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_75_17  PMID:29607384
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of nursing intervention on mothers' knowledge of cervical cancer and acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their adolescent daughters in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that utilized two groups pre and post-test design. The study was carried out among civil servant mothers in Bwari (experimental group [EG]) and Kwali (control group[CG]) Area Councils of Abuja, Nigeria. One hundred and forty-six women who met the inclusion criteria were purposively selected for this study. EG consists of 69 women while 77 are from CG. The intervention consisted of two days workshop on cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. Descriptive and inferential analyses of the data were performed using SPSS software 20 version. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 35 years ± 6.6 in the EG and 41 years ± 8.2 in the CG. The mean knowledge score of cervical cancer was low at baseline in both EG (9.58 ± 7.1) and CG (11.61 ± 6.5). However, there was a significant increase to 21.45 ± 6.2 after the intervention in EG (P < 0.0001).The baseline acceptance of HPV vaccination was high in EG after intervention from 74% to 99%. Exposure to nursing intervention and acceptance of HPV vaccination was statistically significant after intervention (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The nursing intervention has been found to increase mothers' knowledge of cervical cancer and acceptance of HPV vaccination. It is therefore recommended that nurses should use every available opportunity in mothers' clinic to educate on cervical cancer and HPV vaccination.
  2 1,906 205
Education Based on Theory of Planned Behavior over Sexual Function of Women with Breast Cancer in Iran
Zeinab Jalambadani, Gholamreza Garmaroudi, Mahmood Tavousi
April-June 2018, 5(2):201-207
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_67_17  PMID:29607381
Objective: Sexual function in patients with breast cancer, especially in younger patients, is an important issue from clinical and psychosocial perspectives. Theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the important theories that explain the main process of adopting healthy behaviors. This study investigated the effect of education based on TPB on sexual function of women with breast cancer in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 women (60 women in education group, 60 women in control group) visiting Razavi Hospital of Mashhad city were studied, selected by using the random method in 2016. The data collection tool was a questionnaire which was completed during the interview. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire were determined through the face and content validity and through Cronbach's alpha and test-retest, respectively. Results: Data were analyzed using statistical SPSS 22 software. Using linear regression analysis, it was determined that attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) predict 0.85 overall of the total variance of sexual function intention, which among these variables, the effect of the subjective norm was more than the other ones (P < 0.05). After educational intervention, the average rates of knowledge, attitude, PBC, and intention of sexual function in sex education group were significantly increased (P < 0.05); these changes were not meaningful in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in subjective norm between the two groups after intervention. Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that TPB can be used in sex education interventions and have relevant results.
  2 2,852 258
Targeted Therapy-induced Facial Skin Toxicities: Impact on Quality of Life in Cancer Patients
Kaori Yagasaki, Hiroko Komatsu, Kenzo Soejima, Katsuhiko Naoki, Ichiro Kawada, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Yasuo Hamamoto
April-June 2018, 5(2):172-177
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_74_17  PMID:29607377
Objective: Targeted therapy-induced facial skin toxicities may reduce overall quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients. We investigated whether facial skin toxicities affect QoL and attempted to identify factors related to QoL in patients with advanced/recurrent cancer. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in 34 outpatients with advanced/recurrent cancer showing targeted therapy-induced facial skin toxicities in Japan between November 2016 and February 2017. For measurement, we used the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scale, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Data were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Mean DLQI score in 34 patients was 4.59 (standard deviation ± 4.70), which was interpreted as a small effect on a patient's life. Acneiform rash was the most common skin condition noted, followed by xerosis, pruritus, and erythema. Analysis of DLQI scores revealed that symptoms and feelings was the domain most commonly affected among different domains constituting the DLQI. MAC analysis revealed that the fighting spirit score was the highest among MAC scales. We found that age, K6, and fatalism construct in MAC were significantly correlated with total DLQI scores (age: Spearman's ρ= −0.48, P = 0.004; K6: ρ= 0.58, P < 0.001; fatalism; ρ= −0.39, P = 0.025). Conclusions: This is the first study investigating targeted therapy-induced facial skin toxicities in cancer patients. Our results suggest potential negative effects of facial skin toxicities on overall QoL in patients with advanced/recurrent cancer in middle and early old age.
  1 2,324 224
Oncology Nurses: Innovating Precision Care in a Changing Treatment Environment
Brenda M Nevidjon
April-June 2018, 5(2):131-133
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_1_18  PMID:29607372
  - 2,213 306
Creating Innovation in Cancer Care Delivery
Sanchia Aranda
April-June 2018, 5(2):134-136
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_76_17  PMID:29607373
  - 2,166 267
Effectiveness of an Interventional Package on the Level of Anxiety, Depression, and Fatigue among Patients with Cervical Cancer
Mandeep Kaur, Meenakshi Agnihotri, Karobi Das, Bhavana Rai, Sandhya Ghai
April-June 2018, 5(2):195-200
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_56_17  PMID:29607380
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventional package on the level of anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Methods: The study was conducted in room no. 5, first floor, B Block, Department of Radiotherapy, Nehru Hospital, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh Quasi experimental pretest-posttest design was used in the study. A total of 60 patients receiving radiotherapy/chemotherapy were assigned in two groups of 30 each, through total enumeration sampling technique. The tools used for the study were Zung Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression inventory, and Fatigue Scale. The protocol used for the study includes the Jacobson's Progressive muscle relaxtion technique, counsling and home care techniques. Results: Sociodemographic variables and clinical profile of participants in both groups were comparable. Interventional package significantly reduces the anxiety, depression, and fatigue (P < 0.001 in 3 variables) in experimental group. Conclusions: Interventional package for patients with cervical cancer proved to be an effective modality in reducing the anxiety, depression, and fatigue.
  - 2,904 280
Longitudinal Study on Quality of Life and Psychosocial Conditions in Light of Responses to Illness-Related Information in Postoperative Cancer Patients
Michiyo Mizuno, Jun Kataoka, Fumiko Oishi
April-June 2018, 5(2):208-216
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_59_17  PMID:29607382
Objective: Illness-related information can be significant for cancer patients after gastrointestinal (GI) surgery in terms of their performing adaptive tasks. This study longitudinally investigated the health outcomes of Japanese patients who read a booklet about cancer patients' problems and adaption tasks and evaluated the association between the responses to the booklet and the patients' health outcomes. Methods: A questionnaire survey about quality of life (QOL), fatigue, anxiety, cognitive plight, and resilience was administered to postoperative patients with GI cancer 1 week after their discharge from hospital and 6 months after surgery. The questionnaires were returned by email. Results: The mean age of the 32 patients at 1 week was 60.9 years; nearly 68.8% of them were men. As a whole, only two variables, QOL and anxiety, were significantly improved at 6 months over those at 1 week. Three statements were taken to gauge the responses to the booklet. In the two-way ANOVA that took QOL and responses to the booklet as independent variables, the post hoc test found that QOL was significantly improved in patients who agreed with the statement “I vaguely understood the content” or “I will deal with my tasks as described in the scenarios” but not in patients who agreed with the statement “The scenarios reflect my situation.” The anxiety in patients who agreed with the statement “The scenarios reflect my situation” was high at both survey points. Conclusions: This study suggests that associations between the responses to the informational booklet and patients' health outcomes partially indicate the directional property of how to support their information usage.
  - 2,209 168