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   2015| July-September  | Volume 2 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 28, 2015

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Unmet needs and quality of life of family caregivers of cancer patients in South Korea
Hyejin Kim, Myungsun Yi
July-September 2015, 2(3):152-159
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of unmet needs and quality of life (QOL) among family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients and to characterize the relationship between unmet needs and QOL. Methods: A descriptive correlation design was used. Data were collected by convenience sampling during 2013 from 191 FCs of cancer patients who visited an outpatient cancer center in a general hospital in Korea. The comprehensive needs assessment tool for cancer-caregivers and the Korean version of the Caregiver QOL Index-Cancer were used to measure unmet needs and QOL, respectively. Results: FCs of cancer patients had a variety of unmet needs with prevalence ranged from 57.0% to 88.9%, depending on the domain. The domain with the highest prevalence of unmet needs was healthcare staff, followed by information/education. The mean QOL score was 74.62, with a possible range of 0-140. A negative correlation was found between unmet needs and QOL. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that unmet needs relating to health/psychological problems, practical support, family/social support, in addition to household income, cohabitation with the patient, and patient's age, explained 52.7% of the variance in QOL. The most influential factor was unmet needs relating to health/psychological problems, which accounted for 35.7% of the variance. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that oncology professionals need to develop interventions to improve the QOL of FCs by focusing not only on information/educational needs of patient care but also on physical and psychological needs of FCs.
  4,146 563 11
Do men with prostate cancer and their partners receive the information they need for optimal illness self-management in the immediate post-diagnostic phase?
Janelle V Levesque, Sylvie D Lambert, Afaf Girgis, Jane Turner, Patrick McElduff, Karen Kayser
July-September 2015, 2(3):169-175
Objective: To (a) determine whether the information provided to men with prostate cancer and their partners in the immediate postdiagnostic phase met their needs; and (b) examine patient and partner satisfaction with the information received. Methods: Pre-intervention survey data from a pilot randomized controlled trial of a self-directed coping skills intervention involving 42 patients with prostate cancer, and their partners were collected to examine their psychosocial concerns/needs. Results: The main concerns for patients and partners were psychosocial in nature such as managing emotions, concern about the future, and losing control. Overall, patients and partners received most information about tests and treatment options. Partners reported receiving significantly less information about support services (P = 0.03) and self-care strategies (P = 0.03) compared to patients. Partners also reported being significantly less satisfied with the information they received (P = 0.007). Conclusions: Whereas medical information is routinely given, patients and partners may benefit from greater information about psychosocial issues arising from cancer. Despite increased recognition of partner's information needs these still remain unmet.
  3,516 347 4
Using qualitative methods to develop a contextually tailored instrument: Lessons learned
Haeok Lee, Peter Kiang, Minjin Kim, Semira Semino-Asaro, Mary Ellen Colten, Shirley S Tang, Phala Chea, Sonith Peou, Dorcas C Grigg-Saito
July-September 2015, 2(3):192-202
Objective: To develop a population-specific instrument to inform hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus (HPV) prevention education and intervention based on data and evidence obtained from the targeted population of Khmer mothers reflecting their socio-cultural and health behaviors. Methods: The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) guided the development of a standardized survey interview. Four stages of development and testing of the survey instrument took place in order to inform the quantitative health survey used to collect data in stage five of the project. This article reports only on Stages 1-4. Results: This process created a new quantitative measure of HBV and HPV prevention behavior based on the revised Network Episode Model and informed by the targeted population. The CBPR method facilitated the application and translation of abstract theoretical ideas of HBV and HPV prevention behavior into culturally-relevant words and expressions of Cambodian Americans (CAs). Conclusions: The design of an instrument development process that accounts for distinctive socio-cultural backgrounds of CA refugee/immigrant women provides a model for use in developing future health surveys that are intended to aid minority-serving health care professionals and researchers as well as targeted minority populations.
  3,105 319 6
Progress in diagnosis of breast cancer: Advances in radiology technology
J Mari Beth Linder, Alan D Schiska
July-September 2015, 2(3):186-191
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the ages of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast exam or breast self-exam) or by radiologic studies, like mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer have taken place in recent years. This article will review the history of radiologic advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Use of technological advancements in digital breast tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound in breast cancer diagnosis will be presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic interventions when compared to older, traditional X-ray films will be discussed. It is important for all nurses, including radiology and oncology nurses, to be well informed about these varied diagnostic modalities, and appreciate the fact that advances in radiologic imaging technologies can yield improved outcomes for breast cancer patients.
  2,925 323 2
Oncology nurses' recognition of long-term cancer survivorship care in Japan
Asako Miura, Yoshimi Matsuda, Ikue Ogawa, Junko Takagai, Kazue Hirai, Yukie Hosoda, Shizue Suzukz, Kazuko Onishi
July-September 2015, 2(3):136-143
Objective: This study aims to assess the knowledge of definition of cancer survivors among Japanese oncology nurses and their roles in long-term cancer survivorship care. Methods: A structured self-administered and self-report questionnaire created by the study investigators was given to members of the Japanese Society of Cancer Nursing. The subjects were 81 female oncology nurses. Results: Forty-nine nurses had 11 or more years of nursing experience, while 27 nurses had cancer-related nursing certifications such as, certification in oncology nursing specialist. This study population had rather rich experience in oncology nursing. Sixty-two nurses defined a cancer survivor from the time of diagnosis, while the nurses' recognition of long-term survivorship care was poor, compared with nursing care at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and end of life. Conclusions: The nurses were aware of the needs to recognize and address issues faced by long-term cancer survivors and for nursing study, but very few put the effective patient education and interventions into practice. It is because oncology nurses have few chances to see cancer survivors who go out of the hands of healthcare professionals. In increasing the number of long-term survivors, long-term survivorship care is needed in addition to incorporating such education into undergraduate and graduate programs. Further study on the knowledge of long-term cancer survivorship care and nursing practices are required.
  2,817 371 2
A survey of Australian cancer nurses: The prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (CanPaC study)
Catherine Johnson, Gillian Blanchard, Yolande Cox
July-September 2015, 2(3):129-135
Objective: There is global imperative to reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCD's). NCD's are the leading cause of death and disability globally. In Australia, 2010, the World Health Organization estimated cancer deaths attributable to NCD's accounted for approximately 29% of all deaths and most are preventable by modifying lifestyle associated risk factors. The International Council of Nurses (2010) identified nurses are ideally placed to contribute to prevention and control of NCD's through evidence based strategies (EBS). The aim of this study was to explore the Australian cancer nurses role, knowledge, and skills to prevent and control NCD's. Methods: We used nonprobability snowball sampling to collect data from an online survey distributed to 899 members of the Cancer Nurses Society of Australia. Results: Two hundred and fifty-seven nurses responded; >90% found it is within the scope of their role to contribute to prevention and control of NCDs, >70% assess for modifiable risk factors, >85% refer to support services, and 70% were interested in spending more time addressing prevention. Over 60% indicated they had adequate resources, appropriate personal skills, and adequate knowledge; however 73% felt they had inadequate time to incorporate strategies within their existing workload, 56% believed their physical environment was inadequate, and 48% felt a lack of culturally appropriate resources were identified as barrier to contributing to the prevention and control of NCDs. Conclusions: Australian cancer nurses want to contribute to the prevention and control of NCD's although workload, physical environment, and culturally inadequate resources hinder the implementation of EBS to combat NCD's.
  2,703 331 -
Treatment-related symptom severity and occurrences among oncology adults in Australia
Violeta Lopez, Phoebe Williams, David Larkin
July-September 2015, 2(3):144-151
Objective: Cancer treatments cause a range of distressing symptoms that can be well managed with pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. Treatment-related symptom screening and management by health care professionals is required to provide appropriate guidance to help patients to complete successfully their treatment regimen and achieve the best possible outcomes for patients. The aims of this study were to explore treatment-related symptom severity and occurrences among oncology adults in Australia and compare the results with the Chinese and Filipino studies. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey of 84 adult patients over 18 years of age undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and/or radiotherapy (RT) in the Radiation Oncology and Medical Oncology Departments in one public teaching hospital in Canberra, Australia using the 25-item treatment-related symptom checklist (TRSC) was used in this study. Results: Six symptom clusters emerged from combining the 25 symptoms. Patients receiving CT experienced highest fatigue symptom occurrences (95.8%) and greater symptom severity (mean = 2.59) for fatigue symptom cluster for patients receiving a combination of CT-RT. Australians treatment-related symptom severity and occurrences were higher compared with the Filipino and Chinese adult cancer patients. Conclusions: Nurses in oncology settings are uniquely placed to assess patients' therapy-related symptoms that will assist them to target education to cancer patients' individual needs. For all types of cancer, it is important to assess treatment-related symptoms and to provide the most appropriate interventions in consideration to the patients' preferences.
  2,448 305 1
Perspectives from older adults receiving cancer treatment about the cancer-related information they receive
Margaret I Fitch, Alison McAndrew, Tamara Harth
July-September 2015, 2(3):160-168
Objective: Cancer patients have reported that information plays a significant role in their capacity to cope with cancer and manage the consequences of treatment. This study was undertaken to identify the importance older adults receiving cancer treatment assign to selected types of cancer-related information, their satisfaction with the cancer-related information they received, and the barriers to effective information provision for this age group. Methods: This study was conducted in two phases with separate samples. Six hundred and eighty-four older cancer patients receiving treatment completed a standardized survey and 39 completed a semi-structured interview to gather perspectives about cancer-related information. Data were analyzed for 65-79 years and 80+ year groups. Results: Information topics about their medical condition, treatment options, and side effects of treatment were rated as most important by the older cancer patients. Women assigned a higher importance ratings than men to information overall (t = 4.8, P < 0.01). Although participants were generally satisfied with the information, they received many described challenges they experienced in communicating with health care professionals because of the medical language and fast pace of speaking used by the professionals. Conclusions: The older cancer patients in this study endorsed the same topics of cancer-related information as most important as has been reported in studies for other age groups. However, this older group recommended that, during their interactions with older individuals, health care professionals use fewer medical words, speak at a slower pace, and provide written information in addition to the actual conversation.
  2,279 246 4
Special issue on information need in cancer care and prevention
Kai-Chow Choi, Winnie K. W. So
July-September 2015, 2(3):127-128
  2,063 300 1
Factors in the prioritization of information needs among Hong Kong Chinese breast cancer patients
Ann W. Y. Bei, MT Lai, KC Choi, Polly W. C. Li, Winnie K. W. So
July-September 2015, 2(3):176-185
Objective: The study aims to examine the prioritization of information needs in breast cancer patients, using the Information Needs Questionnaire (INQ); and to identify the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with that prioritization. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory study was conducted, by means of consecutive sampling. The INQ was used to examine participants' preferences on information needs. Their demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by means of a structured questionnaire and review of medical records. Backward multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between prioritization of patients' information needs and their demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: A total of 275 breast cancer patients took part in the analysis. Of the nine INQ items, most participants ranked as their top four needs information about the likelihood of a cure (79%), extent of the disease (76%), treatment options (55%), and family risk of developing breast cancer (51%). Certain demographic and clinical characteristics-religious belief, whether living alone or not, household income, educational level, and time since cancer diagnosis-influenced patients' prioritization of information needs. Conclusion: Understanding and meeting the information needs of breast cancer patients are crucial to improving their quality of care. Different patients are likely to have different priorities in information needs according to their demographic and clinical characteristics. An awareness of these associated factors will allow better tailor-made educational interventions to be provided to meet patients' individual needs in a more adequate way.
  1,841 292 3