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   2015| April-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 22, 2015

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Emotional intelligence and clinical performance/retention of nursing students
Chelsea Marvos, Frankie B Hale
April-June 2015, 2(2):63-71
Objective: This exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was undertaken to explore the relationship between clinical performance and anticipated retention in nursing students. Methods: After approval by the university's Human Subjects Committee, a sample of 104 nursing students were recruited for this study, which involved testing with a valid and reliable emotional intelligence (EI) instrument and a self-report survey of clinical competencies. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that although the group average for total EI score and the 6 score subsets were in the average range, approximately 30% of the individual total EI scores and 30% of two branch scores, identifying emotions correctly and understanding emotions, fell in the less than average range. This data, as well as the analysis of correlation with clinical self-report scores, suggest recommendations applicable to educators of clinical nursing students. Conclusions: Registered nurses make-up the largest segment of the ever-growing healthcare workforce. Yet, retention of new graduates has historically been a challenge for the profession. Given the projected employment growth in nursing, it is important to identify factors which correlate with high levels of performance and job retention among nurses. There is preliminary evidence that EI "a nontraditional intelligence measure" relates positively not only with retention of clinical staff nurses, but with overall clinical performance as well.
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The overall impact of emotional intelligence on nursing students and nursing
Lori Michelangelo
April-June 2015, 2(2):118-124
Healthcare employers often criticize the lack of emotional competency and critical thinking skills demonstrated by newly licensed nurses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether emotional intelligence (EI) training for nurses improves critical thinking and emotional competence enough to justify including EI in nursing curricula. A meta-analysis was conducted inclusive of EI related nursing abilities and traits such as leadership, health, reflection, ethical behavior, nursing student performance, and job retention/satisfaction. Studies of EI constructs, test instruments, and contrary viewpoints were also examined. The analysis included 395 EI studies of approximately 65,300 participants. All the studies reported a positive correlation with EI ranging from weak to strong with a moderate cumulative effect size of r = 0.3022 across all studies. This study may contribute to positive social change by reducing employers time and cost for training newly licensed nurses, thereby decreasing the overall cost of health care to the public.
  5,102 791 3
Ability emotional intelligence of nurse managers in the Midwestern United States
Susan M Ohlson, Mary Ann Anderson
April-June 2015, 2(2):82-88
Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the emotional intelligence (EI) and examine the corresponding demographic characteristics of front-line Nurse Managers in acute care settings. Methods: This quantitative descriptive study was conducted in eight acute care hospitals in the Midwestern United States. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was used to measure the EI of 87 front-line Nurse Managers. Demographic characteristics of the participants were captured on a second tool, the Nurse Manager Demographic Characteristics questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. Results: Significant correlations were found between the perceiving and using branches of the model and total EI score and nurses certified in a specialty. No significant correlations were found between EI and graduate education, age, years in management, percentage of time in management or number of direct reports. Considerations for future research are discussed. Conclusions: Opportunity exists to develop EI in front-line Nurse Managers.
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Exploring the emotional intelligence of Florence Nightingale
Edna Ruiz Magpantay-Monroe
April-June 2015, 2(2):107-111
Objective: Emotional intelligence (EI) within nursing appears to be a growing interest as evidenced by the expanding number of literature reviews conducted on the subject. The inquiry for this historical research is to understand the work and characteristics of Florence Nightingale and EI. Methods: The assumption is that nurses who are emotionally intelligent are the most likely to not only survive the nursing profession but to thrive and make compassionate future leaders. Nightingale's letters, pictures and other writings were used to evaluate her viewpoints as an inspirational nurse and leader. Results: Nightingale was a catalyst for change; internally motivated to be a great nurse and had the zeal to develop others as well. Conclusions: Exploring Nightingale's characteristics of EI such her confidence, determination, integrity and compassion, her teachings and beliefs can transcend time to mold successful nurses more than a century later. "The voice of a leader. It is as resounding as the heart it encourages, as far-reaching as the change it invokes. It is tuned by its keen sense of the voices around it and speaks back in a language they can understand. Its breath enters all that truly hear it, and when it no longer speaks, it can still be heard."

-Mae Taylor Moss

  4,731 686 1
A model for the role of emotional intelligence in patient safety
Estelle Codier, David Codier
April-June 2015, 2(2):112-117
Medical errors are the third leading cause of death in the USA, resulting in over 440,000 deaths/year. Although over a decade has passed since the first Institute of Medicine study that documented such horrific statistics and despite significant safety improvement efforts, serious progress has yet to be achieved. It is estimated that 80% of medical errors result from miscommunication among health care providers and between providers and patients. There is preliminary research evidence that communication skills programs can improve safety outcomes, but a systematic theoretical framework for such programs has not been identified. Because of the connection between emotional intelligence (EI) ability and communication effectiveness, EI has been called by some "one of the largest drivers of patient safety." Little literature has explored this relationship. The purpose of this article was to present a theoretical model for the relationship between EI, communication and patient safety, with conceptual and clinical illustrations used to describe such a relationship.
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Comparing traditional measures of academic success with emotional intelligence scores in nursing students
Michelle H Cheshire, Haley P Strickland, Melondie R Carter
April-June 2015, 2(2):99-106
Objective: Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. EI is increasingly discussed in healthcare as having a potential role in nursing. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the causal relationship between EI scores and the traditional academic admission criteria (GPA) and evaluation methods of a baccalaureate nursing program. Methods: The sample included second semester upper division nursing students (n = 85). EI was measured using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Results: The results of the statistical analysis (MANOVA, ANOVA and Pearson correlational coefficient) found no significant relationships or correlations with the current methods of evaluation for admission to nursing school or the evaluation methods used once students are in the nursing program. Conclusions: These results imply that assessing a nursing student's EI is measuring a different type of intelligence than that represented by academic achievement. Based on the findings of this study and the current state of nursing education, EI abilities should be included as part of the admission criteria for nursing programs.
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Developing emotional intelligence in student nurse leaders: a mixed methodology study
Heather M Szeles
April-June 2015, 2(2):89-98
Objective: The purpose of this mixed method, exploratory study was to measure the impact of a peer coaching program on the measured emotional intelligence (EI) of a group of student nurse leaders. Methods Participation in the study was offered to nurses in the Student Ambassador program. Students who consented received instruction on EI and its importance in leadership. Participants then took a preintervention EI test (The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI Test, version 2 [MSCEIT]) to obtain a baseline EI ability score. Students then participated in a series of peer coaching sessions across a semester. Participants then completed a postintervention MSCEIT test, and also a qualitative survey. Results: The analysis of the paired sample t-test showed that there was not a statistically significant difference in the total group EI scores from pre to posttest, t (8) = 0.036 >0.05; however, 80% of participants reported perceived changes in EI ability due to the intervention and 90% reported that peer coaching was beneficial to their leadership development. Conclusions: This study contributes to the body of EI literature and research on nursing education and leadership development.
  3,283 480 5
A longitudinal study of emotional intelligence in graduate nurse anesthesia students
Shawn Collins, Kristin Andrejco
April-June 2015, 2(2):56-62
Objective: Emotional intelligence (EI) is an important component not only for success in the nurse anesthesia (NA) profession, but as a NA student as well. Using the ability-based EI model, the purpose of this was to examine the difference in EI between the first semester and last semester of NA training programs. Methods: First semester NA students completed the online Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test V2.0 EI instrument, and then the same students repeated the instrument in their last (7 th) semester. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between overall EI and long-term overall EI (P = 0.000), reasoning area and long-term reasoning area (P = 0.035), experiencing area (P = 0.000) and long-term experiencing area, perceiving branch and long-term perceiving branch (P = 0.000), using and long-term using branch (P = 0.000), and the managing branch and long-term managing branch (P = 0.026). The correlation between the understanding branch and the long-term understanding branch was not statistically significant (P < 0.157). The paired sample t-test demonstrated no statistically significant change (n = 34) in overall EI, the two areas scores, or the four-branch scores between the first semester and the last semester of a NA training program. Conclusions: This longitudinal study shows the lack of EI change in NA students over time. Thus, no change in EI occurs as a result of transitioning through a NA program based on the accrediting body's standardized curriculum, but the results helped the researcher provide useful data to inform future research on the use of EI measures as predictors of NA program success.
  3,097 467 1
Emotional intelligence levels in baccalaureate-prepared early career registered nurses
Glenda S Reemts
April-June 2015, 2(2):72-81
Objective: The increasing complexity of the healthcare environment calls for increasing emotional intelligence (EI) competence in nurses. This study assessed the EI competence of 164 baccalaureate nursing alumni who graduated during the years 2007-2010 from three Benedictine institutions located in the Midwestern United States to see if there was growth of EI with experience as a registered nurse (RN), and to determine if age, gender, grade point average (GPA), and years of total healthcare work experience prior to graduation predicted EI. Methods: Participants completed the web-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and a demographic survey. Results: Findings indicated 79.4% of participants were competent or higher on the MSCEIT total EI score. Percentages of nurses scoring in the competent or higher range on each of the four branch scores of perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions were 80.6%, 72.7%, 84.2%, and 84.9% respectively. There were no significant differences on EI scores between graduates with 1-2 years compared to 3-5 years of experience as a RN. Results of a linear stepwise regression indicated being female was a significant predictor on the MSCEIT total EI score (P = 0.015) and using emotions branch (P = 0.047). Findings also indicated GPA (P < 0.001) and being female (P = 0.023) were significant predictors of EI on the understanding emotions branch. Conclusions: The findings indicate there is work to be done to improve the EI competence of nursing graduates. Continued research on the topic of EI and nursing is needed to build the knowledge base on how to promote positive patient outcomes.
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April-June 2015, 2(2):125-126
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Introduction to the Guest Editor

April-June 2015, 2(2):55-55
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