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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Introduction of Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation into Nursing Practice: A Prospective Study
Meera S Achrekar, Vedang Murthy, Sadhana Kanan, Rani Shetty, Mini Nair, Navin Khattry
January-March 2016, 3(1):45-50
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.178171  
Objective: The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the compliance to documentation of situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) form. Methods: Twenty nurses involved in active bedside care were selected by simple random sampling. Use of SBAR was illustrated thru self-instructional module (SIM). Content validity and reliability were established. The situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) form was disseminated for use in a clinical setting during shift handover. A retrospective audit was undertaken at 1 st week (A1) and 16 th week (A2), post introduction of SIM. Nurse's opinion about the SBAR form was also captured. Results : Majority of nurses were females (65%) in the age group 21-30 years (80%). There was a significant association (P = 0.019) between overall audit scores and graduate nurses. Significant improvement (P = 0.043) seen in overall scores between A1 (mean: 23.20) and A2 (mean: 24.26) and also in "Situation" domain (P = 0.045) as compared to other domains. There was only a marginal improvement in documentation related to patient's allergies and relevant past history (7%) while identifying comorbidities decreased by 40%. Only 70% of nurses had documented plan of care. Most (76%) of nurses expressed that SBAR form was useful, but 24% nurses felt SBAR documentation was time-consuming. The assessment was easy (53%) to document while recommendation was the difficult (53%) part. Conclusions: SBAR technique has helped nurses to have a focused and easy communication during transition of care during handover. Importance and relevance of capturing information need to be reinforced. An audit to look for reduced number of incidents related to communication failures is essential for long-term evaluation of patient outcomes. Use of standardized SBAR in nursing practice for bedside shift handover will improve communication between nurses and thus ensure patient safety.
  11,200 957 4
The effect of reflexology on chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and fatigue in breast cancer patients
Afitap Özdelikara, Mehtap Tan
July-September 2017, 4(3):241-249
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_15_17  PMID:28695171
Objective: Patients receiving chemotherapy struggle with the side effects of this treatment. These side effects obligate the patients to use not only the pharmacological methods but also non-pharmacological relaxing methods. This study was conducted to determine the effect of reflexology on chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and fatigue in breast cancer patients. Methods: The study was conducted as a pretest–posttest experimental design. The study was conducted with sixty patients, thirty as the control and thirty as the experimental groups. A sociodemographic form, Rhodes index of nausea, vomiting, and retching (INVR), and Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) were used to collect the data. Analysis of variance, t-test, percentage calculations, and Chi-square methods were used to evaluate the data. The data obtained were assessed using the “Statistical Package for Social Science 21.0” software. Results: It was determined that the difference between the total mean scores of INVR in the experimental and control groups was significant on the onset and first and second measurements, and the difference between total mean scores of development and distress between the groups was statistically significant in the third measurement (P < 0.05). The results of the study showed that the BFI mean scores of patients in the experimental group gradually decreased in the first, second, and third measurements (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study proved that reflexology decreased the experience, development, distress of nausea, vomiting, and retching as well as fatigue in the experimental group. Hence, the use of reflexology is recommended for chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and fatigue.
  10,375 350 4
Validation of EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires in the measurement of quality of life of breast cancer patients in Singapore
May Leng Tan, Dahliana Binte Idris, Lee Wah Teo, Soon Yue Loh, Gek Ching Seow, Yen Yen Chia, Aung Soe Tin
April-June 2014, 1(1):22-32
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.135817  
Objective: To validate EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaires and to measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of women with breast cancer in Singapore during their first 4 years of post-diagnosis and treatments. Methods: A quantitative and cross-descriptive sectional study. All of 170 subjects were recruited in a Singapore tertiary cancer center. The European Organization for Research and Treatment-QOL questionnaire and breast cancer specific module (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23) were used to measure the HRQOL among women with breast cancer. All statistical tests were performed using SPSS Version 18. The reliability of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires was examined using Cronbach's alpha test. EORTC QLQ-C30 was validated against EuroQol Group's 5-domain questionnaires (EQ5D) by examining its concurrent validity using Pearson Product Moment Correlation to calculate the total scores. Results: The Cronbach's alpha coefficient results for EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ BR-23 were 0.846 and 0.873 respectively which suggested relatively good internal consistency. The correlation between EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ5D QOL instruments demonstrated a modest linear relationship (r=0.597; P<0.001) that indicated a moderately strong correlation between the two measures. The study showed that Singaporean women with breast cancer had enjoyed high levels of HRQOL during their first 4 years of survivorship but they had significant concern over the financial impact of breast cancer. One of the key findings was younger women had experienced more physical and psychosocial concerns than older women. Conclusion: The EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires are feasible and promising instruments to measure the levels of HRQOL in Singaporean women with breast cancer in future studies.
  9,029 1,078 8
REVIEW ARTICLE
Margaret Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness and a nursing intervention from a unitary perspective
Emiko Endo
January-March 2017, 4(1):50-52
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.199076  PMID:28217730
This mini-review aims to introduce Margaret Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness and caring partnership as a nursing intervention. Emanating from a unitary and transformative perspective of nursing, caring partnership enables nurses to identify with cancer patients as well as to help the patients find meaning in their situation and their lives. In genuine patient–nurse interactions, both patients and nurses experience higher levels of consciousness.
  6,805 1,074 2
AONS NEWS
Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS)
Kazuko Onishi
April-June 2014, 1(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.135799  
Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS). They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN), the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of an education program on knowledge, self-care behavior and handwashing competence on prevention of febrile neutropenia among breast cancer patients receiving Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide in Chemotherapy Day Centre
Wai Chi Mak, Shirley Siu Yin Ching
October-December 2015, 2(4):276-288
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.167232  
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of an education program on the prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) among breast cancer patients receiving AC regimen. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with the repeated-measures design was conducted in a Chemotherapy Day Centre of an acute hospital in Hong Kong. Twenty-five subjects in the intervention group received an individual education session followed by three follow-up sessions and routine care. Twenty-four subjects in the control group received routine care. Primary outcomes included the incidence of admission due to FN, the self-care behavior adherence, the knowledge level on prevention of FN and the self-efficacy in self-management, handwashing competence were assessed by self-designed questionnaires, Chinese version of patient activation measure, and handwashing competence checklist. Results: No statistically significant difference between the intervention group and the control group on the incidence of admission due to FN, the self-efficacy in self-management, and the knowledge on prevention of FN. The self-care behavior adherence was significant at cycle 4 of AC regimen in favor of the intervention group (P = 0.036). Handwashing competence improved more significantly among subjects in the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.009). Conclusions: The education program on the prevention of FN had significantly favorable effects on self-care behavior adherence and handwashing competence across time. However, the intervention did not lead to statistically significant improvement on the incidence of admission due to FN, the self-efficacy in self-management and the knowledge level on prevention of FN.
  5,973 587 2
The relationship between job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses
Rujnan Tuna, Ülkü Baykal
April-June 2014, 1(1):33-39
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.135818  
Objective: Job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses increase day-by-day in connection with rapidly increasing cancer cases worldwide as well as in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to establish job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses and the relationship in between. Methods: The sample of this descriptive study comprised of 189 nurses that are selected by nonprobability sampling method, employed by 11 hospitals in Istanbul. Survey form of 20 questions, Job Stressors Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were used during collection of data. Data were evaluated using percentage, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation analyses. Results: In the study, there was a positively weak correlation between "Work Role Ambiguity" subdimension of Job Stressors Scale and "Emotional Exhaustion" and "Personal Accomplishment" subdimensions, whereas a positively weak and medium correlation was encountered between "Work Role Conflict" subdimension and "Emotional Exhaustion" and "Depersonalization" subdimensions. A negatively weak correlation was found between "Work Role Overload" subdimension and "Emotional Exhaustion" and "Depersonalization" subdimensions. Conclusion: A significant relationship was established between subdimensions of job stress level and of burnout level, that a lot of oncology nurses who have participated in the study wanted to change their units, because of the high attrition rate.
  5,524 761 4
New Insights into Potential Prevention and Management Options for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy
Janet Schloss, Maree Colosimo, Luis Vitetta
January-March 2016, 3(1):73-85
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.170977  
Objective: Neurological complications such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and neuropathic pain are frequent side effects of neurotoxic chemotherapy agents. An increasing survival rate and frequent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy treatments involving neurotoxic agents makes it imperative that accurate diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these neurological complications be implemented. Methods: A consideration was undertaken of the current options regarding protective and treatment interventions for patients undergoing chemotherapy with neurotoxic chemotherapy agent or experience with CIPN. Current knowledge on the mechanism of action has also been identified. The following databases PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, CNKI, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant article retrieval. Results: A range of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and herbal medicine treatments were identified that either showed efficacy or had some evidence of efficacy. Duloxetine was the most effective pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of CIPN. Vitamin E demonstrated potential for the prevention of cisplatin-IPN. Intravenous glutathione for oxaliplatin, Vitamin B6 for both oxaliplatin and cisplatin, and omega 3 fatty acids for paclitaxel have shown protection for CIPN. Acetyl-L-carnitine may provide some relief as a treatment option. Acupuncture may be of benefit for some patients and Gosha-jinki-gan may be of benefit for protection from adverse effects of oxaliplatin induced peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions: Clinicians and researchers acknowledge that there are numerous challenges involved in understanding, preventing, and treating peripheral neuropathy caused by chemotherapeutic agents. New insights into mechanisms of action from chemotherapy agents may facilitate the development of novel preventative and treatment options, thereby enabling medical staff to better support patients by reducing this debilitating side effect.
  5,576 576 7
Factors affecting the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A questionnaire study
Sema Üstündag, Ayten Demir Zencirci
January-March 2015, 2(1):17-25
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.152402  
Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients' quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS) and analyzed via basic descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. Results: Patients were women (54.8%), married (83.5%), elementary school graduates (57.1%), housewives (44.6%) and undergoing fluorouracil-based therapy (47.2%), and almost all patients had religious and cultural rituals for the disease. Women experienced worse physical and social well-being than men (P = 0.001, P = 0.0001). Singles had worse psychological and general well-being (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001). Housewives had the worst physical and social well-being (P < 0.05). No relationship existed between education level and life quality (P > 0.05). Breast cancer and sarcoma patients had the worst social well-being than other cancer patients. The N-SAS points of patients were not affected by blessings/prays, vow/sacrifice, consulting local herbalists and visiting "ocaks (folk physicians)" (P > 0.05). Patients with bad quality of life practiced lead pouring and amulets (P < 0.05). Gender was the first factor affecting the quality of life. Conclusion: Advanced studies on individual quality of life factors affecting cancer would empower nurses for better personal care techniques and patients for easily overcoming the disease.
  4,386 767 8
The relationship between cancer patients' perception of nursing care and nursing attitudes towards nursing profession
Gulay Ipek Coban, Gulistan Yurdagul
April-June 2014, 1(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.135816  
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the patients' perceptions of nursing care with different types of cancer in Turkey and its relationship with nursing attitudes towards nursing profession. Methods: An exploratory approach utilizing cross-sectional design with a structured questionnaire, administered to patients nurses a face-to-face, with specific questions about demographic and health status and two standardized scales: Patient Perception of Hospital Experience with Nursing Care (PPHEN) and Attitude Scale for Nursing Profession (ASNP). This study was conducted at the Research and Application Hospital of Ataturk University in Erzurum, Turkey with a convenience sample of 100 patients who were discharged from medical and radiation oncology clinics and 30 nurses that give care to these patients. Results: It was found that patients' satisfaction had low levels with nursing care and similarly the nurses' attitudes from nursing profession were negative. There was a high correlation between the scales. Conclusion: The nurses' attitudes towards nursing profession are affecting the nursing care of patients' perception with cancer. We suggest that the researchers must be evaluating nurse's attitudes when they determine the patient perceptions of nursing care.
  4,065 639 1
INVITED REVIEW
Web-based interventions for caregivers of cancer patients: A review of literatures
Winnie PY Tang, Carmen WH Chan, Winnie KW So, Doris YP Leung
April-June 2014, 1(1):9-15
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.135811  
Diagnosed with cancer is a traumatic event; it does not only affect the diagnosed patients, but also their caregivers. It brings along negative impacts on biopsychosocial health to the caregivers. Supportive interventions are essential for the caregivers to go through the cancer trajectory. In the past, interventions were being delivered in either face-to-face format or delivering written documents. Although Internet becomes a popular platform for delivering interventions given its substantial growth in usage, the effectiveness of this mode of intervention delivery is unclear. The aim of this review is to review existing literatures regarding efficacy of web-based interventions in psychological outcomes of cancer caregivers. A Literature search was performed in December 2012 from seven databases, including, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINHAL, ERIC, British Nursing Index and EBM Reviews. The following keywords were used in the search but were not limited to "paediatric", "parent", "caregiver", "cancer", "web-based", and "psycho education". Totally 4668 citations were identified, after excluding the duplicated and irrelevant citations; finally six studies were included in this review. A review of the literatures identified that the web-based interventions including either online support group only or a combination of informational website and online support group significantly improved coping skills, in a way reduced anxiety, stress, depression, burden, as well as negative mood and perceived bonding in cancer caregivers. It is concluded that a web-based format as a potential platform for delivering intervention to the caregivers of cancer patients for its unique advantage of easy accessibility, and no geographic or time barriers.
  3,703 927 8
AONS NEWS
A report on the first Asian Oncology Nursing Society conference
Qi Wang, Rui-Shuang Zheng, Judi Johnson
April-June 2014, 1(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.135803  
The first Asian Oncology Nursing Society (AONS) conference was held in Thailand from November 22 to 24 2013. It was a significant milestone in the journey of the development of the AONS. The objectives of the conference were to facilitate opportunities for networking, collaboration and exchange of ideas with renowned leaders in Oncology Nursing, to facilitate sharing and collaboration of oncology nursing in Asia and to explore innovative strategies to strengthen the implementation of evidence-based practice in oncology nursing.
  2,867 1,627 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Coping with stress of family caregivers of cancer patients in Turkey
Elanur Yιlmaz Karabulutlu
April-June 2014, 1(1):55-60
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.135822  
Objective: Cancer is a disease that not only affects the individual's mental and physical integrity but also affects the functionality of the family system. Caregivers experience stress when patients cannot cope with the symptoms they are experiencing. The stress experienced by caregivers gives rise to psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of this study is to determine the attitude of coping with stress of family caregivers of cancer patients. Methods: This study was conducted as a descriptive research at the Medical Oncology Clinic. The study sample group comprised of 127 family caregivers. In the collection of the data, the Personel Information Form and Attitude of Coping with Stress Inventory were used. Results: The coping attitude used most frequently by family caregivers was active planning, and the least used coping attitude was avoidance isolation (biochemical). There was no significant statistical difference between the coping attitude depending on the descriptive characteristics of the family caregivers (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Results show that family caregivers of cancer patients tend to choose effective coping methods. However, there were still caregivers that displayed ineffective coping attitudes. Therefore, it is important to support the effective coping attitudes of caregivers and intervene in order to change the ineffective coping attitudes.
  3,831 551 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into cancer care: Canadian oncology nurses' perspectives
Tracy L Truant, Lynda G Balneaves, Margaret I Fitch
October-December 2015, 2(4):205-214
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.167233  
The integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional cancer care in Canada is in its nascent stages. While most patients use CAM during their cancer experience, the majority does not receive adequate support from their oncology health care professionals (HCPs) to integrate CAM safely and effectively into their treatment and care. A variety of factors influence this lack of integration in Canada, such as health care professional(HCP) education and attitudes about CAM; variable licensure, credentialing of CAM practitioners, and reimbursement issues across the country; an emerging CAM evidence base; and models of cancer care that privilege diseased-focused care at the expense of whole person care. Oncology nurses are optimally aligned to be leaders in the integration of CAM into cancer care in Canada. Beyond the respect afforded to oncology nurses by patients and family members that support them in broaching the topic of CAM, policies, and position statements exist that allow oncology nurses to include CAM as part of their scope. Oncology nurses have also taken on leadership roles in clinical innovation, research, education, and advocacy that are integral to the safe and informed integration of evidence-based CAM therapies into cancer care settings in Canada.
  3,734 555 4
GUEST EDITORIAL
Special issue on global health disparities focus on cancer
Haeok Lee
October-December 2016, 3(4):309-311
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.195883  PMID:28083546
  1,154 3,130 -
SHORT REPORTS
The overall impact of emotional intelligence on nursing students and nursing
Lori Michelangelo
April-June 2015, 2(2):118-124
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.157596  
Healthcare employers often criticize the lack of emotional competency and critical thinking skills demonstrated by newly licensed nurses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether emotional intelligence (EI) training for nurses improves critical thinking and emotional competence enough to justify including EI in nursing curricula. A meta-analysis was conducted inclusive of EI related nursing abilities and traits such as leadership, health, reflection, ethical behavior, nursing student performance, and job retention/satisfaction. Studies of EI constructs, test instruments, and contrary viewpoints were also examined. The analysis included 395 EI studies of approximately 65,300 participants. All the studies reported a positive correlation with EI ranging from weak to strong with a moderate cumulative effect size of r = 0.3022 across all studies. This study may contribute to positive social change by reducing employers time and cost for training newly licensed nurses, thereby decreasing the overall cost of health care to the public.
  3,588 640 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Emotional intelligence and clinical performance/retention of nursing students
Chelsea Marvos, Frankie B Hale
April-June 2015, 2(2):63-71
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.157569  
Objective: This exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was undertaken to explore the relationship between clinical performance and anticipated retention in nursing students. Methods: After approval by the university's Human Subjects Committee, a sample of 104 nursing students were recruited for this study, which involved testing with a valid and reliable emotional intelligence (EI) instrument and a self-report survey of clinical competencies. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that although the group average for total EI score and the 6 score subsets were in the average range, approximately 30% of the individual total EI scores and 30% of two branch scores, identifying emotions correctly and understanding emotions, fell in the less than average range. This data, as well as the analysis of correlation with clinical self-report scores, suggest recommendations applicable to educators of clinical nursing students. Conclusions: Registered nurses make-up the largest segment of the ever-growing healthcare workforce. Yet, retention of new graduates has historically been a challenge for the profession. Given the projected employment growth in nursing, it is important to identify factors which correlate with high levels of performance and job retention among nurses. There is preliminary evidence that EI "a nontraditional intelligence measure" relates positively not only with retention of clinical staff nurses, but with overall clinical performance as well.
  3,504 599 6
ABSTRACTS
Abstracts

December 2015, 2(5):1-44
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.172974  
Full text not available  [PDF]
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CONSENSUS
Best Practice for the Administration of Daratumumab in Multiple Myeloma: Australian Myeloma Nurse Expert Opinion
Tracy King, Jacqueline Jagger, Jodie Wood, Carmel Woodrow, Alicia Snowden, Sally Haines, Christina Crosbie, Kristen Houdyk
July-September 2018, 5(3):270-284
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_9_18  PMID:29963589
Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are typically of an advanced age and may have significant co-existing medical conditions. They have often had multiple lines of therapy and as such experience disease-related effects alongside associated treatment toxicities. Daratumumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of MM in the relapsed/refractory setting. Clinical studies found that daratumumab showed good tolerability as a monotherapy and in combination with current standard therapies. However, the administration of daratumumab does require specific management considerations. It is administered as an intravenous infusion and infusion-related reactions (IRRs) may occur. Daratumumab also interferes with routine blood transfusion tests, giving false positives for the indirect antiglobulin test. This article highlights key nursing care considerations and practical management aspects to improve the treatment experience of patients receiving daratumumab infusions. Pretreatment aspects, patient education, pre- and post-medication, daratumumab administration, and the management of IRRs are discussed. An IRR management sheet that could be used by nurses and a patient information sheet are located at the end of this article.
  3,515 319 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ability emotional intelligence of nurse managers in the Midwestern United States
Susan M Ohlson, Mary Ann Anderson
April-June 2015, 2(2):82-88
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.155733  
Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the emotional intelligence (EI) and examine the corresponding demographic characteristics of front-line Nurse Managers in acute care settings. Methods: This quantitative descriptive study was conducted in eight acute care hospitals in the Midwestern United States. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was used to measure the EI of 87 front-line Nurse Managers. Demographic characteristics of the participants were captured on a second tool, the Nurse Manager Demographic Characteristics questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. Results: Significant correlations were found between the perceiving and using branches of the model and total EI score and nurses certified in a specialty. No significant correlations were found between EI and graduate education, age, years in management, percentage of time in management or number of direct reports. Considerations for future research are discussed. Conclusions: Opportunity exists to develop EI in front-line Nurse Managers.
  3,413 365 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Immune checkpoint inhibitors: An innovation in immunotherapy for the treatment and management of patients with cancer
Jennifer Dine, RuthAnn Gordon, Yelena Shames, Mary Kate Kasler, Margaret Barton-Burke
April-June 2017, 4(2):127-135
DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_4_17  PMID:28503645
Cancer survival rates are generally increasing in the United States. These trends have been partially attributed to improvement in therapeutic strategies. Cancer immunotherapy is an example of one of the newer strategies used to fight cancer, which primes or activates the immune system to produce antitumor effects. The first half of this review paper concisely describes the cell mechanisms that control antitumor immunity and the major immunotherapeutic strategies developed to target these mechanisms. The second half of the review discusses in greater depth immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently demonstrated tremendous promise for the treatment of diverse solid tumor types, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and others. More specifically, the mechanisms of action, side effects, and patient and family management and education concerns are discussed to provide oncology nurses up-to-date information relevant to caring for cancer-affected patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Future directions for cancer immunotherapy are considered.
  2,958 690 36
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Physiological problems in patients undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Sevgisun Kapucu, Yasemin Karacan
April-June 2014, 1(1):50-54
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.135821  
Objective: Stem cell transplantation is usually performed in an effort to extend the patient's life span and to improve their quality of life. This study was conducted to determine the postoperative physiological effects experienced by patients who had undergone autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods: The research is a descriptive study conducted with a sample of 60 patients at Stem Cell Transplantation Units in Ankara. Percentile calculation and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the data. Results: When a comparison was made between patients who had undergone allogeneic Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and those who had undergone autologous HSCT, results indicated that problems occurred more often for the allogeneic HSCT patients. The problems included: Digestion (94.3%), dermatological (76.7%), cardiac and respiratory (66.7%), neurological (66.7%), eye (56.7%), infections (26.7%) and Graft Versus Host Disease (5 patients). Furthermore, the problems with pain (50%), numbness and tingling (40%), and speech disorders (3 patients) were observed more often in autologous BMT patients. Conclusion: Autologous and allogeneic patients experienced most of physical problems due to they receive high doses of chemotherapy. Therefore, it is recommended that an interdisciplinary support team approach should be usedtohelp reduce and manage the problems that may arise during patient care.
  3,269 345 3
NURSING EDUCATION
Exploring the emotional intelligence of Florence Nightingale
Edna Ruiz Magpantay-Monroe
April-June 2015, 2(2):107-111
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.157587  
Objective: Emotional intelligence (EI) within nursing appears to be a growing interest as evidenced by the expanding number of literature reviews conducted on the subject. The inquiry for this historical research is to understand the work and characteristics of Florence Nightingale and EI. Methods: The assumption is that nurses who are emotionally intelligent are the most likely to not only survive the nursing profession but to thrive and make compassionate future leaders. Nightingale's letters, pictures and other writings were used to evaluate her viewpoints as an inspirational nurse and leader. Results: Nightingale was a catalyst for change; internally motivated to be a great nurse and had the zeal to develop others as well. Conclusions: Exploring Nightingale's characteristics of EI such her confidence, determination, integrity and compassion, her teachings and beliefs can transcend time to mold successful nurses more than a century later. "The voice of a leader. It is as resounding as the heart it encourages, as far-reaching as the change it invokes. It is tuned by its keen sense of the voices around it and speaks back in a language they can understand. Its breath enters all that truly hear it, and when it no longer speaks, it can still be heard."

-Mae Taylor Moss

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REVIEW ARTICLES
The effectiveness of support groups in Asian breast cancer patients: An integrative review
Fang-Yu Chou, Frances Lee-Lin, Lily Y Kuang
April-June 2016, 3(2):157-169
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.162826  
Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC) patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries). The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.
  3,244 313 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Unmet needs and quality of life of family caregivers of cancer patients in South Korea
Hyejin Kim, Myungsun Yi
July-September 2015, 2(3):152-159
DOI:10.4103/2347-5625.158019  
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of unmet needs and quality of life (QOL) among family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients and to characterize the relationship between unmet needs and QOL. Methods: A descriptive correlation design was used. Data were collected by convenience sampling during 2013 from 191 FCs of cancer patients who visited an outpatient cancer center in a general hospital in Korea. The comprehensive needs assessment tool for cancer-caregivers and the Korean version of the Caregiver QOL Index-Cancer were used to measure unmet needs and QOL, respectively. Results: FCs of cancer patients had a variety of unmet needs with prevalence ranged from 57.0% to 88.9%, depending on the domain. The domain with the highest prevalence of unmet needs was healthcare staff, followed by information/education. The mean QOL score was 74.62, with a possible range of 0-140. A negative correlation was found between unmet needs and QOL. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that unmet needs relating to health/psychological problems, practical support, family/social support, in addition to household income, cohabitation with the patient, and patient's age, explained 52.7% of the variance in QOL. The most influential factor was unmet needs relating to health/psychological problems, which accounted for 35.7% of the variance. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that oncology professionals need to develop interventions to improve the QOL of FCs by focusing not only on information/educational needs of patient care but also on physical and psychological needs of FCs.
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